FORM REFLEX TO FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS
All acts of conscious and non-conscious life
by their origin are reflexes.
Everybody knows by himself that different feelings
cannot all be taken at once. Normally, the strongest feeling
displaces all remaining, less strong feelings, and then
we forget about things which before were treated
by us ax extremely important.
N. Nosov, ¬ęNeznaika on the MoonĽ
While considering the state of the physiological balance (ho-meostasis) of the living body and its disturbance from the point of view of the study of functional systems we are forced to look oth¬≠erwise than therapeutists on ideas about pathogenesis and about completeness of efficiency of generally proposed plans of treat¬≠ment of some nosologic forms of diseases.
According to the functional system physiology (Anokhin P.K., 1971; Sudakov K.V., 1983), the integral body at each given time period and in the given space is characterized by clear interaction (dynamic structural and functional integration by horizontal and vertical) between a lot of functional systems which determines the normal flow of metabolism, stability of homeostasis, behavioral reactions and comfort of the human life. Disturbance of this inte¬≠gration, if it is not compensated by special mechanisms, means a disease and may result in death of the body.
The initial stimulus for formation and domination of this or that functional system is stimulation of periphery or central receptors of the sensor system of the body which arises due to the change in metabolism (interroreception) or due to the influence of environ¬≠mental factors (exteroreception), as for a human being - first of all, due to the influence of social environment. Information in the form of a nerve pulse, via afferent paths, goes to the central nervous system where the afferent synthesis takes place with the use of the memory apparatus
. During this stage, derived from the memory (congential and individual) are just those fragments of the past experience which are useful, necessary for future achievement of the useful result (behavior).
The stage of the afferent synthesis is replaced by the stage of making a decision, which determines the type and direction of fu¬≠ture actions. The decision making is realized through the forma¬≠tion of the apparatus of the acceptor of the result of actions which programs the expected results.
During the next stage ‚ÄĒ efferent synthesis ‚ÄĒ with the help of the neurohumoral system, according to the principle of interac¬≠tion, the united communities of various organs and tissues are formed to ensure adaptive results useful for the body. Character¬≠istic for the given stage is the fact that the action has been already formed but not brought into reality.
Finally, under the effect of the efferent stimulus which reaches executive mechanisms (efferents) the realistic fulfillment of the program of the action takes place.
Due to the apparatus of the acceptor of the results of the ac¬≠tion and the efferent synthesis the body compares the expected results and the receiving back afferent information about the real¬≠istic results and/or parameters of the action performed. It is just the results of comparison which determine the subsequent ębe-haviorĽ of ęthe solo main timeĽ functional system: in the event of achieving the useful end result it ceases to exist, if the useful result is not achieved, adjustment of structural and functional integra¬≠tion takes place until the useful result is obtained. In such a way, adaptation of the body to the change of conditions of existence takes place.
Final useful adaptive for the human body results which form functional systems of different level are: homeostatic results which determine the optimum for the normal living activity course of dif¬≠ferent metabolic processes in tissues of the body (for example, stable energy, water-electrolytic, fermentative balances, the level of blood pressure, amino acids and glucose of blood, etc.); the results of human behavioral activity which meet leading metabolic and biological needs; the results of the psychic human activity; the results of the social human activity.
Various functional systems in the body are formed, in princi¬≠pal, in a similar way and this fact determines their isomorphism. In order to obtain various adaptive results they may include various or same internal organs. At the same time, each internal organ is polyfunctional and adapted to take part in different functional sys¬≠tems for solving issues under its power (for example, kidneys detoxicate, influence the change in the level of the blood pressure, maintain the water and electrolytic balance, etc.).
Inside each functional system there is also the possibility of in-terchangeability, inter-compensation of effect mechanisms. Should one or several executive components of the functional sys¬≠tem (cells, tissues, organs, systems of organs) fail to function, its other components (cells, tissues, organs, systems of organs) en¬≠sure the final adaptive result. It is extremely important to take these system processes into consideration at compensation of disturbed functions of the body.
The multi-parametric principle of interaction of various simul- -taneously existing functional systems determines their generalized activity. As a rule, the change of one indicator, of the result of the activity of some single functional system, affects immediately the results of the activity of other functional systems.
The principle of hierarchy of functional systems is of extreme importance. This principle consists in the fact that at each given time period the activity of the body is determined by the functional system which dominates in terms of survival or adaptation to the external environment. The change of the dominating functional system for another one takes place permanently at obtaining the final useful result and according to the next dominating need of the body, reflects the essence of permanent metabolism and per¬≠manent interaction between the body and environment.
On the basis of the above, we may conclude about the extreme importance of timeliness and quality of the transfer of information for adequate regulation of the integrative activity of functional sys¬≠tems with the purpose of maintaining the optimum level of the liv¬≠ing activity of a healthy body.
Nevertheless, due to the leading reaction of functional systems to the action of the exo- or endogenous factor which is damaging or potentially pathogenic for the body the algorithm of the protec¬≠tive reaction is often realized in success relative to the stimulus which caused it (Anokhin P.K., 1971). This justifies the high risk of a loss by physiologic reactions of the homeostatic sense and adap¬≠tive meaning (the loss of the physiological measure of the reac¬≠tion), development of the system (organism) pathologic reaction which is the reason for pathologic changes of regulation and work of effector mechanisms which are absolutely not connected with localization of the primary nidus of interaction between the stimu¬≠lating factor and body.
In such a way the possibility of creation of a disease and patho¬≠logic states conditioned mainly by dysfunctions of regulation sys¬≠tems is determined. The pathogenic shift, distortion of the infor¬≠mation transfer with creation of steady generation of executive and simultaneously inhibition of some functions signal to effectors of functional systems which causes their pathologic changes, ham¬≠pers obtaining the final useful adaptive result and destroys hierar¬≠chy, multiparametricity and other principles of functioning of inte¬≠grative functional systems should be considered as the general regularity of disregularity.
At this, the deficit of the mass and energy in one of the systems of regulation causes the steady shift of the corresponding compo¬≠nent of the functional state of the whole body to one of the limits of possible physiological fluctuations of indicators of functions. In such a way, due to predominance at the level of systems of regula¬≠tion and also executive organs (effectors) of regulatory influences of same direction (for example, only stimulation) adaptive possi¬≠bilities of the body get reduced and potentially pathogenic hyper-activation of functional systems (vicious circles with positive feed¬≠back) arises.
Through creation of pathologic systems of regulation in re¬≠sponse to the result of interaction between the body and etiologic factor disregulation may persists even after elimination from the body of the reason of a disease which leads to endogenization of diseases and pathologic processes (Kryzhanovsky G.N., 1980).
Just endogenization of diseases and pathologic processes con¬≠nected with interaction of pathogenic systems of regulation dif¬≠fers qualitatively the disease from physiologic processes and states of the body (in particular, causes the so-called chronization of a disease) at which functioning of systems of regulation and func¬≠tional systems is directed towards the obtaining the end useful adaptive result.
At diseases and adaptive processes which develop through disregulation and pathologic changes of effectors the end adap¬≠tive result already does not represent the dominating factor of cre¬≠ation of functional systems. New steady in time central distal inte¬≠grations apear unification of elements of which is biologically senseless, informational flows in which are undirected and patho¬≠genic activated which leads to exclusively pathogenic result (steady pathologic state, formation of generator of the determinant sys¬≠tem, pathologic generator systems, etc.).
In this period, excess of interoreceptive afferentation in com¬≠pliance with segmentarity of afferent inputs from an internal organ or its part and dermatoma lead to the appearance of skin zones of hyperalgesia (zones Zakharyin-Head). Formation of the patholog¬≠ic generator system in the central nervous system (for example, in the zone of posterior horn) is the result of appearance of various, individually localized, extraceptive (located on the skin, tunica mucosa of mouth and conjunctiva), proprioceptive (muscle, ten¬≠don, fascial and periosteal) and intraceptive (vuscular, bronchial, intestinal) trigger zones.
At the same time, the pathologic system induces the formation at all levels of regulation and structural and functional organization of anti-systems (the so-called compensatory-adaptive reactions), the purpose of which is eliminating etiologic factor, blocking dis¬≠eases and pathologic processes and recovery. At this, the anti-system should be considered as the new, in terms of nature of reg¬≠ulation and mass of effectors, central-periphery integration which specifics is determined by peculiarities of a disease and patho¬≠logic process. Formation of anti-systems is the necessary element of recovery, whereas they hyperactivation is possible only at nor¬≠malization of information processes in the body and elimination of deficit/surplus energy in cells of apparatuses of regulation (neu-roendocrinic and immune system) and executive organs.
So, a disease, nosological form, is not the independent suffering of some single organ or anatomic system of the body which includes this organ but always the system change of absolutely all functions of the given body which are en¬≠sured by absolutely all anatomic systems of organs and tis¬≠sues of the living organism under conditions of re-distribu¬≠tion of energy and formation of new informational channels.
Dysfunctions of systems of regulation are always accompanied by formation of pathologic systems and distortion of information channels which result in appearance of special symptoms (for ex¬≠ample, trigger zones) and which is not always taken into account by therapeutists.
The nature, localization, combination and dynamics of mani¬≠festation of trigger zones are individual for each patient.
Influence by batches of pulses of apparatuses of DENS-thera-py on skin receptors in the area of accessible ref lexogenous and trigger zones leads to optimization of the flow of information, acti¬≠vation of anti-systems, elimination of pathologic systems and res≠toration of physiological integration of functional systems, i.e. to stabilization of adaptive abilities of the body and achievement of the end result - recovery.
Taking into account the above, the high efficiency of the use of apparatuses of the DENAS therapy at treating any nosologic form at any stage (period) of a disease or pathologic process becomes clear.