ABOUT HEALTH, PRE-DISEASES AND DISEASES
Not a disease takes medicine, a patient does.
The majority of people believes that tablets are a sniper bullet
which knocks the aim without a fault. However, it is much like
as a splinter bullet which knock Â«the areaÂ»...
Academician E.M.Tarasov, 1963
According to a widely spread opinion, there are four periods (or stages) in the development of a disease: latent, prodromal, the height and clinical outcome.
The latent period starts at the instant of a contact of the body with nosogenic factor deviations of the external environment and/ or internal environment and ends at the moment when the first clinÂical signs of the developing disease manifest themselves (its duÂration may be from several minutes to several tens of years). DurÂing this period, a man dos not feel sick, does not apply for the medical aid and does not receive treatment.
The prodromal period of a disease manifests itself by nonÂspecific symptoms and syndromes (generalized reaction, general manifestation of a disease) and continues until the clinical presenÂtation (period of localized, mainly specific reactions) pathogno-mic for the affection of this or that organ takes place. During the prodromal period, the pharmacological therapy is indicated in orÂder to eliminate the existing symptoms and syndromes (pain, hy-perthermic, toxic syndromes, convulsive disorder, etc).
The height of a disease, or the stage of a disease proper, is described by full development of presentation specific for the givÂen disease (affection of this or that organ of system of organs). On the basis of the clinical presentation the diagnosis is made and the DENAS therapy, mainly drug, is prescribed aimed at normalizing functions of the affected organ or the system of organs (pathogenic and symptomatic) and simultaneously at eliminating of the expected or determined reason of this disease (etiotropic, pharmacological therapy).
At chronic diseases with continuing, though slow, development of the pathologic process it is practically impossible to distinguish the high period of a disease. That is why, the main therapeutic tactic in this situation includes the pharmacological fight with existing symptoms.
The clinical outcome is divided into several variants:
Death. Death is possible during the height of a disease in
the case of a heavy (hyperergic) development of a process. During the end of a disease, when recovery processes start dominat
- Recovery. The complete and incomplete recovery are disÂ
tinguished. The boundaries between them are uncertain, the reÂ
covery may be practically complete, though the persistent anaÂ
tomic defect still takes place in the body (unavailability of one kidÂ
ney is compensated by the function of the remained). On the other
hand, even the complete recovery does not represent one hunÂ
dred percent return of the body to its initial state since in any case
the body acquired the new adaptive quality (for example, immuniÂ
ty after infectious diseases). Taken during convalescence are reÂ
habilitation actions aimed at more complete recovery of disturbed
functions and structures of the body (reparative therapy) and at
prevention of recurrences (improvement of specific and non-speÂ
cific protective forces of the body).
- Recurrence, i.e the return of a disease in the form of a new
cycle. In this case the therapy similar to that during the height of a
disease is indicated.
- Transfer of an acute form of a disease into chronic (the latÂ
ter, in its turn, may end in the recovery). In the majority of cases,
due to many reasons, it is impossible to determine the exact time
of such transfer. That is why, in the best case, the DENAS therapy includes
self-assistance and mutual assistance, same as during the proÂ
dromal period (i.e. symptomatic therapy). In the worse, as during
the latent stage (no therapy at all).
ing pathological ones, death may be the result of complications, ie. due to addition of another pathological process not related diÂrectly to the reason of the main disease.
So, at the beginning of the development of the adaptive reÂsponse of the body to the pathological factors of the environment or internal environment (latent period) the body fights himself. If the body preserves stability of the internal environment a disease will not develop. If the body fails to retain stability of homeosta-sis, symptoms which limit the life comfort ("aggravating lifeÂ») appear signalizing about adverse adaptation. After that, we start fighting against the consequence of disturbance of self-regulaÂtory processes called "a disease" by taking a lot of pharmacoÂlogical preparations of narrow directed action hoping that some part of these preparations will contribute to the recovery. At this, we do not take into account the fact of disturbance of regulatory-integrative processes of the dynamics of compensatory-adaptive reactions of the body and even do not try to help to the body from this point of view. Moreover, taking medicine without docÂtor's assistance and according to our own knowledge we do not understand that we increase a range of non-physiological stimuli thus worsening the self-regulating ability of the body (Â«... for the nature makes due without somebody's indications, not learning from somebodyÂ», taught Hippocratus).
Despite the many-century wisdom of eastern and western medicine which states that the main principle of restoration of the internal environment of the body is "treatment of a patient, not a disease* (Hippocratus, T. Sidengam, M.Ya. Mudrov, S.P. Botkin), i.e. the principle of the individual approach to treatment of each patient taking into account the degree of his adaptive possibilities, till nowadays, dominating in the modern medical literature is the following statement: Â«ln the past, doctors were able to treat a patient but not a disease since before the second half of 19 century the scientifically justified and developed clasÂsification and nomenclature of diseases were not available and could not exist. The reveal of nosological forms (Â«the place where a disease seatsÂ») allows the therapy of just a disease*. At present, in international classifications (see part 2, chapter 5, paragraph 5.1) and protocols of treatment of diseases (see special literature) individual (adaptive) abilities are also not taken into account.
Thinking over approaches to the solution of the problem, we see that the modern therapy does not provide the body with the right for self-recovery. Due to some reasons, we start improving resistance of the body after we got ill. Though, it would be logical to do this all the time taking into account the assumption on the permanent action of a set of stimuli which may result in elimination of adaptation of development of a disease.
Actually, what is «disease» and what is Â«healthÂ»? Having studÂied a lot of available literature, we may conclude that often it is imÂpossible to lay a distinct boundary between the health and a disÂease, between the norm and pathology. This is connected with the fact that at the modern stage of development of the medicine there is no a system of objective assessment of a degree of body correÂspondence to the norm by which, on the one hand, the often use in the official medicine of the uncertain expression «practically healthy* and, on the other hand, such characteristics of health which we use to give in our everyday life as «no health*, «poor health*, «rocky», «good health* can be explained.
Due to this reason, at present, doctors start distinguishing transitional states between the health and disease (pre-disease). Some authors interpret these periods in the life of the body as premorbid background (i.e. the state on the eve of some specific disease), which is evaluated by specialists retrospectively, only after a visit to a doctor in connection with some complaints (or specific disease). Others consider a disease as the prodromal period, as the possibility of a disease realized by the body (which is actually the disease proper), which is stipulated by the influÂence of external factors and by an worsening of adaptation abilities of the body.
Many researches look at the state of the pre-disease as at the disturbance of homeostasis at the level of informational and energy processes of the body which leads to worsening of the adaptation possibilities of the body. During this period the body is as if on the verge of health and disease. As a rule, patient's complaints include general weakness, asthenia, disturbance of sleep, body discomfort, non-localized painful sensations. This period may ends either by the transition into the Â«expressedÂ» form of some disease or, in a lapse of some time, by normalization of functions of the body, i.e. by adaptation to the disease or recovÂery.
The norm is preservation by a man of the full scope of his activity, whereas the most general sign of commencement of a disease is probably the non-specific symptomatology: general weakness, decrease in the level of living activity or its limitation to known exÂtent which should inevitably affect normal relationship between a man and the environment.
There are a lot of definitions of a disease but none of them reÂflects the general presentation. Here are some of them.
Â«A disease is the life under abnormal conditions* (R. Virkhov).
Â«Any disturbance of the balance not restored by the adaptive ability of the body is represented in the form of a disease... The reaction of the body on harmful influence of the environment just represents the essence of a diseaseÂ» (S.P. Botkin).
Â«A disease is a process which arises as the result of the effect of harmful (extraordinary) stimulus on the external or internal enÂvironment which is characterized by the reduced adaptation of a living organism* (Rubicon).
Â«A human disease arises at a meeting of an integral mechaÂnism with unordinary conditions of existence which brings into acÂtion, via the cerebral cortex, protective devices of the body in orÂder to balance the body with the external environment. This proÂcess of the living activity of the integral body, the process of fight for recovery, obeying by general physiological mechanisms, acÂquires some qualitative peculiarities specific for each pathological process* (A.I. Strukov).
Â«The disease is adaptation of the body which is characterized by specific forms and levels of adaptive acts* (I.V. Davydovsky, V.E. Silvestrov).
Â«The disease is the life which flow is disturbed by the damage to the structure and function of the body under the effect of external and internal factors at reactive mobilization in qualitatively speÂcif ic forms of its compensatory adaptive mechanisms; the disease
is characterized by general or partial decrease in adaptation to the environment and by limitation of the living activity of a patient* (Large Medical Encyclopedia).
Â«The disease is the life of a damaged body with involvement of processes of compensation of disturbed functions. The disease decreases the labor activity of a man and is the qualitatively new process* (A.D. Ado).
Â«The disease is disturbance of the normal activity of the body at exposure to damaging agents which results in a decrease of his adaptive possibilities* (N.N. Zaiko).
In all above definitions the disease is connected with inadeÂquate reaction of adaptation of the body to affecting factors of the external and internal environment.
So, methods aimed at improving resistance (reactivity) of body's own adaptive reactions should prevent a disease, alleviate patient's sufferings, reduce complications, prevent its turning into a chronic one, achieve the more complete restoration of the funcÂtion and structure. These are methods aimed at improving adapÂtive self-regulatory abilities of the body.
The use of apparatuses of dynamic electric stimulating regulation relates just to these methods which was theoretically and experimentally proved by papers of L.Kh. Garkavi and co-authors (1998). This is not aggressive non-invasive method which we apÂply without disturbance of the body energy balance in any conveÂnient time.
Readers which do not have the medical education may proceed to chapter 7